Academic Reports and Books

Castells, Manuel, Mireia Fernandez-Ardevol, Jack Linchuan Qiu, and Araba Sey. Mobile Communication and Society: A Global Perspective. Cambridge: MIT Press, 2007.

Curtis, Ric, Karen Terry, Meredith Dank, Kirk Dombrowski, and Bilal Khan. Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children in New York City, Volume One: The CSEC Population in New York City: Size, Characteristics and Needs. Center for Court Innovation. December 2008.

End Human Trafficking Now, Campaign of the Suzanne Mubarak Women’s International Peace Movement. Luxor Implementation Guidelines to the Athens Ethical Principles: Comprehensive Compliance Programme for Businesses. 2006.

Finklea, Kristin M., Adrienne L. Fernandes-Alcantar, and Alison Siski. Sex Trafficking of Children in the United States: Overview and Issues for Congress. Congressional Research Report. June 21, 2011.

GLE Group. The 2012 Games and Human Trafficking. London Councils, January 2011.

Gozdziak, Elzbieta M. and Micah N. Bump, Data and Research on Human Trafficking: Bibliography of Research-Based Literarture, Georgetown University Institute for the Study of International Migration, October 2008.

Hampton, Keith N., Lauren Sessions Goulet, Lee Rainie, and Kristen Purcell. Social networking sites and our lives. Pew Research Center’s Internet & American Life Project. June 16, 2011.

Hughes, Donna M. The Demand for Victims of Sex Trafficking. University of Rhode Island. June 2005.

Hughes, Donna M. “Prostitution Online.” Journal of Trauma Practice 2, no. 3/4 (2003): 115-132.

Hughes, Donna M. “The Use of New Communications and Information Technologies for Sexual Exploitation of Women and Children.” Hasting’s Women Law Journal 13, no.1 (2002): 129-222.

Hughes, Donna M. “The Internet and Sex Industry: Partners in Global Sexual Exploitation.” Technology and Society Magazine. Spring 2000.

International Labour Organization (ILO). ILO Action Against Trafficking in Human Beings. 2008.

International Telecommunication Union (ITU). The World in 2010, ICT Facts and Figures. 2010.

Internet Security Task Force. Enhancing Child Safety & Online Technologies. The Berkman Center for Internet & Society. December 31, 2008.

Jones, Sydney. Online Classifieds. Pew Internet & American Life Project. May 22, 2009.

Kara, Siddharth. Sex Trafficking: Inside the Business of Modern Slavery. New York: Columbia University Press, 2009.

Kara, Siddharth. “Designing More Effective Laws Against Human Trafficking.” Northwestern Journal of International Human Rights 9, no. 2 (Spring 2011): 123-147.

Kreyling, SJ, CL West and JR Olson. Technology and Research Requirements for Combating Human Trafficking: Enhancing Communication, Analysis, Reporting, and Information Sharing. U.S. Department of Energy. March 2011.

Kristof, Nicholas D. and Sheryl WuDunn. Half the Sky: Turning Oppression into Opportunity for Women Worldwide. New York, Vintage Books, 2010.

Kunze, Erin. “Sex Trafficking Via The Internet: How International Agreement Address The Problem And Fail to Go Far Enough.” Journal of High Technology Law 10, no. 2 (2010): 241-289.

Laczko, Frank and Elzbieta Gozdziak, eds. “Data and research on human trafficking: a global survey.” International Organization for Migration 43, no. 1/2 (2005).

Lenhart, Amdana and Jeremy Shermak. “Data memo Re: Selling items online.” Pew Internet & American Life Project and comScore Media Matrix. November 2005.

Lenhart, Amanda, Kristen Purcell, Aaron Smith and Kathryn Zickuhr. Social Media and Young Adults. Pew Internet & American Life Project. February 3, 2010.

Maltzahn, Kathleen. Digital Dangers: Information & Communication Technologies and Trafficking in Women. Association of Progressive Communications. August 2006.

Parreñas, Rhacel Salazar. Illicit Flirtations Labor, Migration, and Sex Trafficking in Tokyo. Palo Alto: Stanford University Press, forthcoming 2011.

Perrin, Benjamin. Faster, Higher, Stronger: Preventing Human Trafficking in the 2010 Olympics. The Future Group. November 1, 2007.

Quirk, Joel. The Anti-Slavery Project: From the Slave Trade to Human Trafficking. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2011.

Rainie, Lee, Kristen Purcell, and Aaron Smith. The Social Side of the Internet. Pew Internet & American Life Project. January 18, 2011.

Ruggie, John. “Guiding Principles on Business and Human Rights: Implementing the United Nations ‘Protect, Respect and Remedy’ Framework.” Human Rights Council, 17th Session. March 21, 2011.

Savona, Ernesto U. and Sonia Stefanizzi, eds. Measuring Human Trafficking: Complexities and Pitfalls. New York: Springer, 2003.

Shared Hope International. Demand: A Comparative Examination of Sex Toursim and Trafficking in Jamaica, Japan, the Netherlands, and the United States. n.d.

Smith, Linda A., Samantha Headly Vardaman, and Melissa A. Snow. The National Report on Domestic Sex Trafficking: America’s Prostituted Children. Shared Hope International. May 2009

Steinfatt, Thomas M. and Simon Baker. Measuring the Extent of Sex Trafficking in Cambodia- 2008. United Nations Interagency Project on Human Trafficing (UNIAP). January 2011.

Sykiotou, Athanassia P. Trafficking in human beings: Internet recruitment. Council of Europe. 2007.

The Schapiro Group. Adolescent Girls in the United States Sex Trade. Tracking Results for August, 2010. Women’s Funding Network. 2010.

United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) and the United Nations Global Initiative to Fight Human Trafficking (UN.GIFT). Global Report on Trafficking in Persons. February 2009.

U.S. Department of Justice, Project Safe Childhood. The National Strategy for Child Exploitation Prevention and Interdiction. August 2010.

U.S. Department of State. Trafficking in Persons Report. June 2010.

U.S. Department of State. Trafficking in Persons Report. June 2011.

U.S. Government Accountability Office. Human Trafficking- Better Data, Strategy, and Reporting Needed to Enhance U.S. Antitrafficking Efforts Abroad. GAO-06-825. July 2006.

Wolack, Janis, Kimberly Mitchell and David Finkelhor. Internet Sex Crimes Against Minors: The Response of Law Enforcement. Crimes Against Children Research Center and the National Center for Missing & Exploited Children. November 2003.

Zhang, Sheldon. “Beyond the ‘Natasha’ story- a review and critique of current research on sex trafficking.” Global Crime 10, no. 3 (August 2009): 178-195.

Zickuhr, Kathryn. Generations 2010. Pew Internet & American Life Project. December 16, 2010.

Ziefle, Martina. “Effects of display resolution on visual performance.” Human Factors 40, no. 4 (December 1998): 555-568.

Legal Sources

Dart v. Craigslist, Inc. 665 F. Supp. 2d 961 (N.D. Ill. 2009).

Complaint for Damages. M.A. v. Village Voice Media Holdings, LLC. Case 4:10-cv-01740 (E. Dist. Mo. Sept. 16, 2010).

Shaffer v. State. No. 2009-KA-00151-COA. 2010 WL 3554354 (Miss. Ct. App. Sept. 14, 2011).

Social networking Internet Web sites: privacy: minors. CA S.B. 242 (2011).

Stratton Oakmont, Inc. v. Prodigy Services Co. 1995 WL 323710 (N.Y. Sup. Ct. 1995).

Domestic Minor Sex Trafficking: Hearings on H.R. 5575. Before the Subcommittee on Crime, Terrorism, and Homeland Security. 111th Cong. (2010).

Victims of Trafficking and Violence Protection Act of 2000.  Pub. L. No. 106-386 (October 28, 2000).

Trafficking Victims Protection Reauthorization Act of 2011. S. 1301. 112th Cong. (2011).

United Nations. United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime and the Protocols Thereto. “Annex II: Protocol to Prevent, Suppress, and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children, Supplementing the United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime.” (2004).

United States v. Murrell. 368 F. 3d, 1283 (11th Cir. 2004).

United States v. Myers. 2011 WL 2391306 (11th Cir. June 15, 2011).

William Wilberforce Trafficking Victims Protection Reauthorization Act of 2008. Pub. L. No. 110-457 (December 23, 2008).

News/Press Releases

DNA Foundation. “Demi Moore and Ashton Kutcher Launch ‘Real Men’ Campaign to Help End Child Sex Slavery.” Press release. September 23, 2010.

Federal Bureau of Investigation, Atlanta Division. “Pimp Who Claimed to be a Modeling Agent Sentenced to Prison.” Press release. June 4, 2009.

Federal Bureau of Investigation, Atlanta Division, “Pair Indicted, Appear in Court for Sex Trafficking of a Minor.” Press release. April 16, 2009.

Federal Bureau of Investigation, Jacksonville Division. “Jury Finds New York Man Guilty of Sex Trafficking Women by Force, Threats of Force, and Fraud.” Press release. February 17, 2011.

Federal Bureau of Investigation, Los Angeles Divison. “Man Pleads Guilty and is Sentenced to 17½ Years in Federal Prison for Sex Trafficking of Minors.” Press release. June 10, 2010.

Federal Bureau of Investigation, New York Field Office. “Nine Gambino Crime Family Members Sentenced in Manhattan Federal Court for Racketeering, Murder Conspiracy, Extortion, Sex Trafficking, and Other Crimes.” Press release. May 12, 2011.

Federal Bureau of Investigation, New York Field Office. “Last of 14 Gambino Crime Family Members and Associates Plead Guilty to Racketeering, Murder Conspiracy, Extortion, Sex Trafficking, and Other Crimes.” Press release. January 10, 2011.

Federal Bureau of Investigation, Sacramento. “Sacramento Man Sentenced to 12 Years and Seven Months for Sex Trafficking of a Minor.” Department of Justice Press release. November 8, 2010.

Federal Bureau of Investigation, Seattle. “Army Sergeant Sentenced to 11 Years in Prison for Sex Trafficking Juveniles.” Department of Justice Press release. October 26, 2010.

Federal Bureau of Investigation, Seattle. “Tacoma Felon Sentenced to 13 Years in Prison for Sex Trafficking Offenses.” Department of Justice Press release. May 11, 2010.

NetHope. “NetHope, USAID and DNA Foundation Launch Mobile Trafficking App Contest in Russia and the Region.” Press release. June 14, 2011.

The Advocates for Human Rights, “Human Rights Organization Declines Craigslist Grant.” Press release. May 4, 2010.

United Nations Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights. “New Guiding Principles on Business and human rights endorsed by the UN Human Rights Council.” News release. June 16, 2011.

U.S. Department of Justice. United States Attorney James T. Jacks, North District of Texas. “Dallas Felon Admits to Sex Trafficking a Minor and Possessing an Assault Rifle.” Press release. January 18, 2011.

U.S. Department of Justice. “Department of Justice Announces Launch of Human Trafficking Enhanced Enforcement Initiative.” News release. February 1, 2011.

U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC). “Employment Discrimination Laws ‘New Frontier’ In War Against Human Labor.” Press release. January 19, 2011.

U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC). “EEOC Resolves Slavery and Human Trafficking Suit Against Trans Bay Steel for an Estimated $1 Million.” Press release. December 8, 2006.

U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement. “Kansas man gets 15 years in prison for attempted sex trafficking of a child.” News release. December 1, 2009.

U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement. “Maryland man pleads guilty in sex trafficking conspiracy involving 3 minor girls.” News release. July 16, 2009.

Women’s Funding Network.“Six-Month Report: Domestic Sex Trafficking Up in Key States.” Press release. September 15, 2010.


Blumenthal, Richard, Attorney General of Connecticut, et al. Letter to Craig Newmark and Jim Buckmaster. Re: Adult Services Section of Craigslist. August 24, 2010. and news releases/news_releases/cuccinelli/craigslist sign on – FINAL.pdf

Equal Employment Opportunity Commission Meeting. Human Trafficking and Forced Labor, January 19, 2011.

Federal Bureau of Investigation. “Innonence Lost/Operation Cross Country Press Conference.” Washington, D.C. June 25, 2008. (speech by Robert S. Mueller, Director, FBI).

Jepsen, George, ATtorney General of Connecticut, et al. Letter to Samuel Fifer. August 31, 2011.

Logan, Mark, executive director, Polaris Project. Letter to Craig Newmark and Jim Buckmaster. Craigslist Must Complete the Job. September 14, 2011.

Silicon Valley Leadership Group, et al. Letter to Ellen Corbett, California State Senate. Subject: SB 242(Corbett)-Oppose. May 16, 2011.

“Starting out young in the world’s oldest profession: children prostitutes in L.A.” Pat Morrison. Southern California Public Radio. October 21, 2010.

U.S. Department of State. “Background Briefing by Senior State Department Officials on Internet Freedom Programs.” June 15, 2011.

News Articles

ABC7 News. “Oakland Man Indicted For Sex Trafficking of Kids.” August 19, 2006,

Bialik, Carl. “The Elusive Link Between Sex Trafficking and Sporting Events.” Wall Street Journal Blogs. June 18, 2010.

Corben, Ron. “UN Urges Businesses to Aid Fight Against Human Trafficking.” Voice of America News. July 26, 2011.

Duke, Alan. “Official: Craigslist to replace ‘blatant Internet brothel’.” CNN. May 13, 2009.

Editorial. “A Win for Internet Speech.” New York Times. October 26, 2009.

Foresman, Chris. “Craigslist shuts down ‘adult services’ worldwide.” Ars Technica. January 2011.

Forgany, Sarah. “Beware: Social networks lure young Texans into danger.” KENS 5, November 19, 2010.

Goldberg, Michelle. “The Super Bowl of Sex Trafficking.” Newsweek. January 30, 2011.

Grant, Melissa Gira. “The Craigslist Sex Panic,” Slate. May 27, 2009.

Grossman, Lev. “Iran’s Protests: Why Twitter is the Medium of the Movement.” TIME. June 17, 2009.,8599,1905125,00.html.

Hansen, Evan. “Censored! Craigslist Adult Services Blocked in U.S.” September 4, 2010.

International Telecommunication Union (ITU). “The rise of social networking.” ITU News. July- August 2010.

ITU Newsroom. “ITU StatShot, Issue 5.”  January 2011. index.aspx.

Kloer, Amanda. “Teen Prostitution Ring Operation On Facebook Gets Busted.” February 4, 2010.

Kloer, Amanda. “ Challenges Backpage, Online Classifieds to Keep Ads Safe.” March 10, 2011.

Kohler, Ed. “Impact of Craigslist Charging for Erotic Service Ads in Minneapolis.” The Deets. November 8, 2008.

Lambert, Bruce. “As Prostitutes Turn to Craigslist, Law Takes Notice.” New York Times, September 5, 2007.

Lewis, Kimathi. “Arrests made in child sex crimes as agencies join forces.” Examiner.. August 6, 2010.

Louie, Marissa. “Craigslist Saga: The Great Migration of Sex Trafficking Ads,” Huffington Post. January 13, 2011.

Mahaputra, Sandy Adam and Eko Priliawito. “Indonesia Grils Sold Through Facebook.” Viva News. January 19, 2011.

Microsoft News Center. “New Technology Fights Child Porn by Tracking its ‘PhotoDNA’.” December 15, 2009.

Miller, Claire Cain. “Craigslist Says It Has Shut Its Section for Sex Ads.” New York Times. September 15, 2010.

News Services. “2 charged with using Craigslist to offer underage girls for sex.” Chicago Tribune. January 12, 2007.

Pinto, Nick. “Women’s Funding Network Sex Trafficking Study is Junk Science.” LA Weekly. March 24, 2011.

Poulsen, Kevin. “Pimps Go Online to Lure Kids into Prostitution.” February 25, 2009.

Reuters. “Super Bowl a magnet for under-age sex trade.” MSNBC. January 31, 2011.

Richmond, Riva. “Facebook’s New Way to Combat Child Pornography.” New York Times. May 19, 2011.

Saar, Malika Saada. “Girl Slavery in America.” Huffington Post. April 20, 2010.

Sherman, William. “Bloods gang members went to Brooklyn schools to recruit underage girls as hookers: prosecutors.” New York Daily News. June 2, 2010.

Stone, Brad. “Sex Ads Seen Adding Revenue to Craigslist.” New York Times. April 25, 2010.

Stone, Brad. “Under Pressure, Craiglist to Remove ‘Erotic’ Ads.” New York Times. May 13, 2009.

Sullivan, Amy. “Cracking Down on the Super Bowl Sex Trade.” TIME. February 6, 2011.,8599,2046568,00.html.

Townsend, Jim. “Backpage replaces Craigslist as prostitution-ad leader.” Advanced Interactive Media Group. October 19, 2010.

UNODC. “Crime Commission to address protection of children from exploitation on the Web.” April 11, 2011.

Walsh, Paul. “Burnvsille man guilty of using girl, 16, for prostitution.” Star Tribune. September 16, 2010.

Weiser, Benjamin. “Charges Called ‘New Low’ For Gambinos.” New York Times. April 20, 2010.

Whittaker, Mark. “Price increases drive growth in adult ad revenue.” Advanced Interactive Media Group. January 26, 2011.

Whitworth, Dan. “Facebook should allow under-13s says Mark Zuckerberg.” BBC. May 24, 2011.

Women’s Funding Network. “Domestic Sex Trafficking of Minors – 2010 State-by-state cases reported by media.” Last updated December 17, 2011.

Yin, Sara. “Craigslist Nixes Erotic Ads Worldwide.” PC Mag. December 21, 2010.,2817,2374608,00.asp.

Zollman, Peter. “Craigslist revenue, profits soar.”Advanced Interactive Media Group. April 30, 2010.



Global Network Initiative.

Melissa Farley, “Prostitution Research & Education,”

Microsoft. “Join the Fight to End Human Trafficking.”

MTV EXIT: End Exlpoitation and Trafficking.

The Natural Language Group at the USC Information Sciences Institute,

Twitter Engineering. “The Engineering Behind Twitter’s New Search Experience.”

UN Global Pulse.

U.S. Attorney’s Office for the Western District of Missouri. “Human Rescue Trafficking Project.”

U.S. Department of State. “Trafficking in Persons Report.”